This is a long quote, but a great one, showing that the Christian’s assurance of God’s favor should not be directed to their own internal feelings or good works but Christ himself, and that we have a personal, objective reminder of that in this world:

The subjective access which we have to our own histories, then, does not provide a platform from which we may leap to certainty about ourselves. We cannot claim that the final meaning of our lives is luminous to us by introspection. There is a place for certainty, for the ‘assurance’ upon which Calvinist Christians have insisted so rightly, but it is founded not on introspection but on faith in the objective word of God. In examining the apparent meaning of our past lives, we have to confess its ambiguity, its failure to give clear expression to the reality which must shape it. Therefore we continually turn back from these appearances of ourselves to the reality itself…

In contrast to the hiddenness of the formative moment we are given a public sign that keeps it before our minds and prevents our ignoring it, as we can so easily ignore what is hidden about other people. The sign is baptism. It is a ritual, and therefore liable to the loss of significance which can befall any ritual when it is taken out of its proper context of understanding. It is a sign, and therefore distinct from the reality to which it points. Nevertheless, a ritual sign is the only appropriate way for the hidden moment of conversion to take public form; for without such a form the reality, given from outside man’s sphere of activity, lying beyond the scope of even his religious capabilities, will be in danger of confusion with the merely human acts of repentance of belief which it produces. Neither an individual’s belief, nor his love for God, nor his appearance of repentance and moral seriousness, however impressive it may be, can assure us of the redemptive presence of Christ. Only the sign itself, because it is given by Christ, can give a public assurance that God’s redemptive grace is active in the world and that this person too will encounter it, so entitling us to read the indications in the candidate’s subjective and active life hopefully, as evidence of the Spirit’s activity. Baptism does not point to the high moments of devotion or to the sustained achievements of moral fibre of which the human spirit is capable, but to the formative moment in which the whole of a person’s life, past and future, is taken up and pronounced upon by God in the ‘Yes’ that he has spoken and will speak in Christ.

Oliver O’Donovan, Resurrection and Moral Order, 2nd Ed., pp. 258-259

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